First of all let me introduce myself. My name is Shtokalov Kirill. I am twenty years old.Nowadays I am a student of the second course in KubSTU. My family lives in Krasnodar in one of the residential areas.My family is not very large. I My parents are not old at all. Daddy is 48 and Mum is 2 years younger than he is. My mother is a housewife. They have been married for 23 years.They have much in common, but their views on music, films, books and sports are rather different. For example, my mother is fond of classical music, but my father is not. He prefers the same kind of music that I do. My mother doesn’t like action or horror films. But my father does. My father likes detective stories, but mum prefers historical novels. My father is fond of tennis and my mother doesn’t go in for sports.My grandparents are already pensioners, but they are still full of life and energy. I have many relatives — aunts, uncles, cousins. Some of them live in our city. But the others live far from us. But we try not to miss a chance of seeing each other. They often stay with us during holidays. Or either we go to see them.I am fond of reading books on history and fiction. I am going in for sports. I like playing football, basketball . I take part in different chess competitions and tournaments.So in 2 years I shall finish my stuiding and I have to decide what to do: either to apply for a job or for a study.
I want to tell you about my working day. All the days looked very much the same.As a matter of fact, I am not an early-riser. I hate getting up early, but I got used to it. On weekdays I usually get up at 6. Do my morning exercises. Then I wash my face and hands and clean my teeth. I don’t take a shower in the morning. I usually prefer doing it after coming from university.At 6:30 I am ready to have my breakfast. I like to have a light breakfast which consists of a cup of coffee or tea and some cheese or sandwiches. After breakfast I go to the university.KubSTU is far from my house. Usually. It takes me 40 minutes to get to university. Study begin at 8:00 a. m. and finish at about 3 p. m. 3 or 4 pairs a day is the ordinary timetable. I seldom have lunch in the canteen.At 1 o’clock in the afternoon we have lunch. We usually have lunch in a small cafe just round the corner. At 3 o’clock we go out from university and about in 5 I come homeThere I start doing my home assignments. It takes me about four or five hours to cope with my homework properly. And besides I work hard at those subjects in which I should take my exams. As a rule, I finish doing my homework at about 7 o’clock. But one day a week is not so busy. This is sunday. On Sunday my friends and I visit some entertainment. So I am free about all day. I usually have supper at 7 o’clock p. m. My parents are at home at this time. We gather in the kitchen and while having supper we share the day news and plan our next day. Then I go on with my work. At 12 I go to bed.
The Kubstu was founded in 1918. In june 1918 The Congress of the Council of public Education resolved to open the polytechnic Institute in Ekaterinodar. It had only about 900 students and trained qualified specialists for canning, milk, meat, vegetable oil and margarine industries.At present our university trains about 12000 students in different specialities. It consists of 10 faculties: Power Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil, Computer, Highway, Chemical Engineering, Economics; Food and Breadstuff technologies. It also has Extramural Department which provides teaching for those who work.The curriculum consists of mathematics, physics, computer science, foreign languages, the theoretical basis of electrical engineering etcThe chief methods of instruction are lectures, seminars and works in laboratories. The Diploma paper is submitted in written form and is defended publicly.The main building of our university was completed in 1985. It houses the library with a specious reading-room, many classrooms and well-equipped laboratories. Our University has another 4 buildings in different districts of Krasnodar.The university also has 5 hostels where the students from different towns live. So, I am very proud that I am a student of Kubstu
Krasnodar is my native city and also it is an administrative centre of Krasnodar krai. It was founded on January 12, 1794 as Yekaterinodar,that meant «Catherine’s Gift» simultaneously in recognition of Catherine the greatest’s grant of land in the Kuban region to the Kuban Cossacks.
The city originated as a fortress built by Cossacks to defend imperial borders. Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks. It was granted town status in 1867. By 1888, about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia.During the World War 2, Krasnodar was occupied by the German Army between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war.In our city tourists can meet some attractions include St. Catherine’s Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus.The most interesting place of Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street. There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. In the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end one can see the Avrora cinema. A «Triumphal Arch» is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe. This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar. Like with many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is automobileIn Krasnodar there are 15 gymnasiums, 5 lyceums, 67 schools of general education and 20 specialized schools, as well as 7 non-state lyceums and schools.The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.).Nowadays Krasnodar is one of the booming cities in the world. That is why I am proud, that I live in this city
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded in 1147 by Kniaz Yuri Dolgoruky. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon’s attack. Three-quarters of the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon’s occupation, but by the mid-19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres. The population of the city is over 9 million.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. It has more historic associations than any other place in Moscow. The Kremlin and Vasily Blazheny are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture.The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St Basil’s Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There are a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. Now Moscow is being reconstructed and we all hope that in a few years the city will become even more beautiful.
There are more than 100 museums in Moscow. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery. Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.Moscow is a city of students. There are over 100 higher educational institutions in it. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the centre of political life of the country.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometres. It is situated both in Europe and in Asia.There are different types of climate on its territory. It is very cold in the North even in summer, and very warm in the South even in winter. There are many rivers in Russia, the longest are the Volga and the Yenisei and the Ob’.The population of Russia is about 140 million people. The capital of our country is Moscow.As for the political system, Russia is a federal republic. The legislative body of the country is State Duma and the executive body is a Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected every four years.Big changes in political and economical life have happened in Russia during last years. Our country is involved in the complicated process of formation of completely new relations in international and domestic life. First the political life has been changed. For the first time since 1917 we have started the construction of democratic society, the correction of all mistakes made by the communist regime for 70 years. The most difficult thing is the alter-nation of people’s mentality. As now there is no such notion like “capitalism is the socialism’s enemy” usual for the consciousness of many generations of former soviet citizens.The changes in the sphere of economy are being done with great difficulties. Almost all the connections between the republics of the former USSR have been broken. The formation of the new economy is a very long process of creation of new economic connections with inner and foreign partners. The political ambitions of many countries of the former USSR and hard inflation processes in the country are the real obstacles on the way to the new economy. But in spite of all these facts we should say, that Russia is going ahead. This can be proved, for example, by the attitude to our country in the world, by the first democratic elections of the President of Russia. This event became the great landmark in the history of the renewed Russian state. We believe in the great future of Russia…
The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olimpia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olimpia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship.In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later.In 1894, a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed all the sports governing bodies and pointed out the significance of sports and its educational value. Two years later the first modern Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition.In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centres… Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then it has won a lot of gold, silver, and bronze medals. In 1980 Moscow hosted the Twenty- Second Olympic Games. Russian sportsmen got medals for their records in many sports events. And now the Olimpic games come back in our country again. Sochi is the centre of winter Olympiad for nearest 4 years… All inhabittans of Russia are proud og this great event ну и еще че-нить приплести
Education plays a very important role in our life. It is one of the most valuable possessions a man can get in his life.
During all the periods of human history education ranked high among people. Human progress mostly depended upon well-educated people. We get our knowledge of this world and life through education. In Russia there is a nine-year compulsory education, but to enter a university one has to study two years more.School-starts at the age of six for Russian children. But most of them have learnt letters in kindergarten which is now part of primary school. Primary and secondary schools together comprise eleven years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of Russian, mathematics, sciences. A variety of subjects are taught at lyceums and gymnasiums.After finishing secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Vice-rectors are in charge of the academic and scientific work. Higher educational institutions train undergraduates and graduate students in one or several specialisation’s. The faculties are headed by the Deans.
The Russian educational policy is a combination of economic and social objectives. An educated person contributes more to the society and education on the other hand gives a person the prospect for professional advance. The citizens of Russia show a great concern for education for themselves and their children.Institutions of higher education include: technical training, schools, teachers training colleges, universities which offer master’s and doctoral degrees programmes.The faculties have specialised councils for conferring advanced academic degrees.
Education plays a very important role in our life. It is one of the most valuable possessions a man can get in his life.During all the periods of human history education ranked high among people. Human progress mostly depended upon well-educated people. We get our knowledge of this world and life through educationIn Great Britain children begin to go to school at the age of five. First they study at infant schools. In these schools they learn to draw with coloured pencils and paints. They also make figures out of plasticine and work with paper and glue. They play much because they are very young. Later they begin to learn letters and read, write and count.At the age of seven English schoolchildren go to junior schools. They do many subjects: English and Maths, History and Music, Natural History and Drawing, Handicrafts, French and Latin.They do not go to school as early as we do, but they stay there longer. The first lesson usually starts at 9 o’clock. There are 3 lessons with short breaks of 10 minutes between them and then an hour break for lunch. After lunch they have two more lessons which are over by half past three.If you have a look at an English pupil’s school record, you will see that the marks in it differ from the marks we have. Our schoolchildren get marks from 2 to 5. At English school there are marks from 1 up to 10 and at some schools from 1 up to 100.Junior school ends at the age of 11 when pupils take the Eleven Plus examination and then secondary school begins. At the age of 16 schoolchildren take their exams. Only 45 per cent continue with fulltime education after 16. The rest go to work or join employment training schemes.After leaving secondary school young people can apply to a university, a polytechnic or a college of further education.There are 126 universities in Britain. They are divided into 5 types:The Old ones, which were founded before the 19th century, such as Oxford and Cambridge;The Red Brick, which were founded in the 19th or 20th century;The Plate Glass, which were founded in 1960s;The Open University It is the only university offering extramural education. Students learn subjects at home and then post ready exercises off to their tutors for marking;The New ones. They are former polytechnic academies and colleges.The best universities, in view of «The Times» and «The Guardian», are The University of Oxford, The University of Cambridge, London School of Economics, London Imperial College, London University College.Universities usually select students basing on their A-level results and an interview.After three years of study a university graduate get the Degree of a Bachelor of Arts, Science or Engineering. Many students then continue their studies for a Master’s Degree and then a Doctor’s Degree (PhD).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and above five thousand small islands. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast respectively. The British isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest — east, center and southeast — is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis is the highest mountain. There are a lot of rivers in GB, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The UK is one of the world’s smallest countries. The population of the country is over 87 million and about 80% of it is urban. The UK is highly developed industrial country. It’s known as one of world’s largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. The UK is constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen, but in practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Liberal party is the ruling party nowadays. Итд итп
London is the capital of Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is an old city, its history counts more than two thousand years. London is both the capital oi the country and a huge port. London is situated upon both banks of the Thames, about forty miles from the mouth and is divided into two parts by the river: north and south. There are 17 bridges that cross the river. The population of London is more than 9 million people.The history of London goes back to Roman times. Due to favourable geographical position, soon after the Roman conquest, a small town became an important trade centre. Actually, London can be divided into several parts: the City or Downtown of London, Westminster, the West End and the East End. The City is the oldest part of London with narrow streets and pavements. There are many offices, companies and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom. Only a few thousand people live there. The biggest Banks and offices are concentrated in the City. The West End is the centre of London. It is full of richest hotels, largest supermarkets, best cinemas and concerthallsAnother important district of London is Westminster, where most of Government buildings are situated. Westminster Palace is the seat of the British Parliament. Westminster Palace was founded in 1050. It is situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darwin and others.The Towers of the Houses of Parliament stand high above the city. On the highest tower there is the largest clock in the country which is known to the whole world as Big Ben.. The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.There are many nice squares in London. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of the West End. One can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square. There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The East End of London is the industrial area and the place where the working people live. There are many factories, workshops and docks there. The East End, lying eastwards from the City is very large and crowded. There are many cars and buses in London. There is an underground in London too. The underground, constructed in London, was the first underground in the World.
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, and China. It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a seaboarder with Russia.The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million.If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley, which is located in Alaska.America’s largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part of the country is continental. The south has subtropical climate. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the leading producer of copper and oil and the worlds second producer of iron ore and coal. On the industrial enterprises of the country they produce aircrafts, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, weapon, furniture, and paper.Though mainly European and African in origin, the Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including the Chinese and the native Americans — Indians.The largest cities are New York, Los Angeles, Chicag, Detroit, San Francisco, and others.The United States is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, D. C. According to the Constitution of the USA, the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the juridical. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.
Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land ten miles square and it does not belong to any separate state but to all the states. The district is named in honour of Columbus, the discoverer of America. The capital owes much to the first President of the USA -George Washington. It was G. Washington, who chose the place for the District and laid in 1790 the corner-stone of the Capitol, where Congress sits.Washington is not the largest city in the USA. It has a population of 900 000 people. Washington is a one-industry town. That industry is government. It does not produce anything except very much scrap paper. Every day 25 railway cars leave Washington loaded with scrap paper.Washington has many historical places. The largest and tallest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and the Senate chamber. There are no skyscrapers in Washington because no other building must be taller than the Capitol. The White House is the President’s residence. All American presidents except George Washington (the White House was not yet built in his time), have lived in the White House. It was built in 1799. It is a two-storied, white building.Not far from the Capitol is the Washington Monument, which looks like a very big pencil. It rises 160 metres and is hollow inside. A special lift brings visitors to the top in 70 seconds from where they can enjoy a wonderful view of the whole city.The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of the third President of the USA, Thomas Jefferson, who was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The memorial is surrounded by cherry-trees. The Lincoln Memorial devoted to the memory of the 16th President of the US, the author of the Emancipation Proclamation, which gave freedom to Negro slaves in America.On the other bank of the Potomac lies the Arlington National Cemetery where President Kennedy was buried. American soldiers and officers, who died in World Wars I and II are buried there too.
Since ancient times Nature has served man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase. The planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but it’s the only place where human beings can live. Today, our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, overpopulation are the problems that threaten human life on Earth.Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other things. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever. Many cities suffer from smog.Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow vegetables.The pollution of air and the world’s ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man’s careless interaction with nature. Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries — members of the UNO — have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organization Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the present but also for the future generations.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky ) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and founder of the astronautic theory. He is considered to be one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics.He was born in Izhevskoye. His father was successively a forester, teacher, and minor government official. At the age of 10, Konstantin caught scarlet fever and became hard of hearing. When he was 13, his mother died. He was not admitted to elementary schools because of his hearing problem, so he was self-taught. As a reclusive home-schooled child, he passed much of his time by reading books and became interested in mathematics and physics. As a teenager, he began to contemplate the possibility of space travel. His visionary ideas about the future of humanity in space were magnificent and far ahead of his time. He dreamed about space flight since he was a very young boy. Tsiolkovsky was certain that the future of human life will be in outer space, so he deceded that we must study the cosmos to pave the way for future generations.Later, he proved mathematically the possibility of space flight, and wrote and published over 500 works about space travel and related subjects. These included the design and construction of space rockets, steerable rocket engines, multi-stage boosters, space stations, life in space, and more. His notebooks are filled with sketches of liquid-feuled rockets, detailed combustion chamber designs with steering vanes in the exhaust plume for directional control, double walled pressurized cabins to protect from meteorites, gyroscopes for attitude control, reclining seats to protect from high G loads at launch, air locks for exiting the spaceship into the vacume of space, and other amazingly accurate predictions of space travel. Many of these were done before the first airplane flight. He determined correctly that the escape velocity from the Earth into orbit was 8 km./second, and that this could be achieved by using a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. He predicted the use of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen and kerosene for propulsion, spinning space stations for artificial gravity, mining asteroids for materials, space suits, the problems of eating, drinking, and sleeeping in weightlessness, and even closed cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies.