Definition of terms native, borrowing, translation loan, semantic loan.

Words of native origin and their characteristics.

Foreignelements in Modern English. Scandinavian borrowings, classical elements- Latin and Greek, French borrowings, Russian-English lexical correlations.

Assimilation of borrowings. Types and degrees of assimilation.

Etymological doublets, hybrids.

International words.

The morphological structure of a word. The morpheme. The principles of morphemic analysis. Types of morphemes. Structural types of words: simple, derived, compound words.

Productivity. Productive and non-productive ways of word-formation.

Affixation. General characteristics of suffixes and prefixes.

Productive and non-productive affixes, dead and living affixes.

Word-composition. Classification of compound words. Coordinative and subordinative compound words and their types.

Conversion, its definition. The word-building means in conversion.

Shortening. Lexical abbreviations. Acronyms. Clipping. Types of clipping.

Non-productive means of word formation. Blending. Back-formation. Onomatopoeia. Sentence — condensation. Sound and stress interchange.

Semasiology as the branch of linguistics. Referential and functional approaches to meaning.

Meaning and concept (notion).

Types of word meaning: lexical, grammatical meanings. Denotational and connotational components of lexical meaning. Implicational meaning.

Polysemy. The semantic structure of a polysemantic word.

Context. Types of context.

Change of meaning. Extension, narrowing, elevation, degradation of meaning of a word, metaphor, metonymy.

Causes of development of new meanings.

The process of development and change of meaning.

Definitionof the term «synonyms»‘. A synonymic group and its dominant member.

Classification system for synonyms established by V.V. Vinogradov

Classification of synonyms based on difference in connotations.

Classification according to the criterion of interchangeability in linguistic context (relative, total and contextual synonyms).

Characteristic pattern of English synonyms.

The sources of synonymy.

The traditional classification of homonyms.

The classification of homonyms suggested by Professor A.I.Smirnitsky.

Sources of homonyms.

Homonymy and polysemy.

The English vocabulary as an adaptive system. Neologisms.

Traditionallexicological grouping. Lexico-grammatical groups. Word-families.

Euphemisms. Their types and functions.


The theory of the semantic field. Common semantic denominator.

Thematic or ideographic groups. Common contextual associations,

Hyponymy, paradigmatic relation of inclusion. Hyponyms, hyperonyms, equonyms.

The problem of definition of free word-groups. Various approaches to the definition of the term «word-group».

Structure of free word-groups.

Meaning of free word-groups: lexical meaning, structural meaning, Interrelation of structural and lexical meanings in word-groups. Motivation in word-groups.

Lexical and grammatical valency.

The essential features of phraseological units: lack of semantic motivation (idiomaticity) and lexical and grammatical stability. The concept of reproducibility.

Different approaches to the classification of phraseological units: semantic, functional (according to their grammatical structure), contextual.

Academician V.V.Vinogradov’s classification of phraseological units.

Stylistic aspect of phraseology. Polysemy and Synonymy of Phraseological Units.

N.N.Amosova’s concept of contextual analysis. Definition of fixed context.

S.V.Koonin’s concept of phraseological units. Functional and semantic classification of phraseological units.

Formal and functional classification.

Phraseological stability.

Proverbs, sayings, familiar quotations and clichés.